Wednesday, 27 September 2017

Beauty and the beech …

Another world ...


Although their appearance might suggest that slime moulds are fungi, they are neither fungi nor moulds; though they often form spore-bearing structures that resemble those of true fungi. Most slime moulds are generally deemed by taxonomists to be protists; the oddities of the natural world that don't seem to fit in with the rest of our global taxonomic grouping system - though this classification is still open to some debate.

Although
 many species fruit on decaying wood, they do not form penetrating and absorptive masses of hyphae in the woody
 substrate. Instead, slime moulds form structures called
 plasmodia, which are naked [i.e. without cell walls] masses of 
protoplasm [a colourless material comprising the living part of a cell], which can move about and engulf particles, in an 
amoeboid-like manner, in order to maximize the nutrients they can draw from their food source. The plasmodia creep about over 
the surfaces of resources, consuming bacteria, fungal spores, plants, protozoa, and small particles of non-living organic
 matter. When conditions become unfavorable the plasmodia convert into spore-bearing structures known as sporangia [clusters of spores]. Spores from the sporangia are then dispersed to new habitats and the life cycle begins once again. The young sporangia, of what I believe to be Tubulifera arachnoidea, formerly Stemonitis ferruginosa, is pictured above living on a heavily decayed beech tree; this particular mass having a diameter of no more than 10mm.

Slime moulds are strange and wonderfully varied in appearance. When magnified through the eye of a macro lens another world is entered …

References:

O’Reilly, P. (2016). Fascinated by Fungi – exploring the majesty and mystery, facts and fantasy of the quirkiest kingdom on earth. Llandysul: First Nature, pp.78-79.
Sterry, P. and Hughes. B. (2009). Collins Complete Guide to British Mushrooms and Toadstools. London: HarperCollins, p. 334-335.

Thursday, 21 September 2017

Alien invader (revisited) …

Devil’s Fingers (Clathrus archeri)


The aptly named Devil’s Fingers, only rarely seen in southern Britain, is a striking species, which reached Europe from Australia or New Zealand at the start of World War I (1914). It was first recorded in Britain from Cornwall in 1946. As global warming advances this exotic species may well become more common in Britain. One thing is for sure, its striking appearance and rancid smell guarantee that it will not go unnoticed for long …

References:

Buczacki, S., Shields, C. and Ovenden, D. (2012). Collins Fungi Guide: The most complete field guide to the mushrooms and toadstools of Britain & Ireland. London: HarperCollins, p. 448, fig. p. 449.
O’Reilly, P. (2016). Fascinated by Fungi – exploring the majesty and mystery, facts and fantasy of the quirkiest kingdom on earth. Llandysul: First Nature, p. 304.
Phillips, R. (2006). Mushrooms. London: Pan Macmillan, p. 339, fig. f.
Sterry, P. and Hughes. B. (2009). Collins Complete Guide to British Mushrooms and Toadstools. London: HarperCollins, p. 244, fig. p. 245.

Friday, 15 September 2017

Frozen in time …

Bearded Tooth (Hericium erinaceus)


Despite its somewhat neutral colouring, H. erinaceus is, by any standards, one of the most striking and beautiful of all woodland fungi.

It is a rare tooth fungus of dead or damaged hardwood trees in old woodland where it grows mainly on beech and oak. Its delicate pendent spines giving it the appearance of a waterfall frozen in time. It is confined mainly to southern England and eastern Wales. H. erinaceus is of conservation concern across its European range. It is listed as one of only four non-lichenised fungi on Schedule 8 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 and is thereby accorded the highest level of protection for a fungus in the UK. It is a UK Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP) priority species.

References:

Buczacki, S., Shields, C. and Ovenden, D. (2012). Collins Fungi Guide: The most complete field guide to the mushrooms and toadstools of Britain & Ireland. London: HarperCollins, p. 470, fig. p. 471.
O’Reilly, P. (2016). Fascinated by Fungi – exploring the majesty and mystery, facts and fantasy of the quirkiest kingdom on earth. Llandysul: First Nature, p. 233.
Phillips, R. (2006). Mushrooms. London: Pan Macmillan, p. 327, fig. e.
Sterry, P. and Hughes. B. (2009). Collins Complete Guide to British Mushrooms and Toadstools. London: HarperCollins, p. 280, fig. p. 281.

Friday, 1 September 2017

Coeur de Sorcière …

Red Cage (Clathrus ruber)






Rarely seen in Britain, C. ruber is a striking and unforgettable species, which was first recorded in Britain from the Isle of Wight in 1844 (British Mycological Society, FRDBI Database, 2017).

Like its close relative the Devil’s Fingers C. archeri, C. ruber emerges from a partly buried, grey-white, gelatinous, uneven, egg-shaped, volva. As the ‘egg’ ruptures, the fruiting body rises and expands to reveal a pale salmon-orange to reddish-orange, hollow, fragile, cage-like network of connecting spongy branches. They erupt and then collapse in little more than 24 hours. Within two or three days all signs of the fruitbody have generally disappeared. The inner surface is lined with a sticky, greenish, fetid gleba, smelling of faeces, carrion or rotten meat which is designed to attract flies, such as the Calliphora sp. in the top image above, which are the primary agents of spore dispersal.

In France this strange stinkhorn is known as Coeur de Sorcière, the Sorcerer’s Heart, which I must say I rather like.

References:

Buczacki, S., Shields, C. and Ovenden, D. (2012). Collins Fungi Guide: The most complete field guide to the mushrooms and toadstools of Britain & Ireland. London: HarperCollins, p. 448, fig. p. 449.
O’Reilly, P. (2016). Fascinated by Fungi – exploring the majesty and mystery, facts and fantasy of the quirkiest kingdom on earth. Llandysul: First Nature, p. 304.
Phillips, R. (2006). Mushrooms. London: Pan Macmillan, p. 339, fig. g.
Sterry, P. and Hughes. B. (2009). Collins Complete Guide to British Mushrooms and Toadstools. London: HarperCollins, p. 244, fig. p. 245.
Stijve, T. (1997). Close Encounters with Clathrus ruber, the latticed stinkhorn. Australasian Mycological Newsletter, 16(1), pp. 11-15.